Kravchuk Y.B. |
Management independent work of students in order to enhance educational activity
The ultimate goal of training activities in higher education is becoming a self-thinking, socially active professional qualifications, capable to self-improvement and self-education. One of the most promising ways of solving this problem is the professional orientation of the object, which is implemented through classroom and independent work of students, the most effective way of promoting intellectually-cognitive activity, the formation of students' emotional, value attitude to knowledge, from which it depends, in the final After all, the quality of knowledge. Leading is a function of feedback in the learning process.
The ongoing analysis and monitoring levels schooling freshmen in different subjects, show that the quality of teaching in secondary schools in recent years has declined and continues to deteriorate. This is confirmed by the analysis of test results. First-year students usually try to memorize the textbook or lecture material, but find it difficult to express it meaningfully. Often, students' activity is reduced to looking through texts, superficial perception, introduction to the theory and methods of work, literally rewriting texts in the abstract (it identified the students with the concept of "independent work on the study of educational material"), but does not go into active self-study, the work retention and mastery of knowledge and skills scheduled, although the students think that they understand and assimilate well.
The vast majority of students believe that the wealth of knowledge that gives high school, will not be used by them in their future profession and in real life. This contributes to the reduction of hours devoted to the study of disciplines, both basic and profile cycles. All this requires time management and increase the capacity of training time and self-employment.
The analysis showed that over 20% of first-year students are not mature enough skills of independent work, and less than 20% - do not know how to plan the work ahead and implement it controls more than 15% - do not own techniques of logical thinking (comparison, classification, generalization, methods of proof derived consequences), less than 15% - find it difficult to taking notes during lectures, educational material and not during independent work, more than 20% - are experiencing difficulties in the practical and seminars, 10% - poor command of skills and abilities to work with educational and scientific literature. Therefore, the main task of the teacher to awaken the interest and need to the most intellectual effort. Thus, according to foreign researchers, success in education depends on 75% of the student. About 50% comes from the individual characteristics of the student's personality, define success in cognitive activity - the development of memory, intelligence, attentiveness, ability to apply themselves. 25% success due to affective factors - learning motives, emotions, relationships in the group and so on. And only 25% of success in the acquisition of knowledge, abilities and skills depends on the quality of education.
The main means of teachers, with the help of which he can control and guide students' independent work, in my opinion, is a set of teaching aids, which direct all the educational activities of each student to achieve the main goals of education. We use all the elements to engage each student in an active, independent, focused work with a pre-planned and actually gradually disclose the results (scores).
However, as already noted, the mere existence of high-quality methodological support is not enough to ensure that the student has successfully mastered the educational material as self-discipline, experience cognitive activity, the level of attention, sense of responsibility, educational horizons for many of them developed in sufficiently. Because of this, very often there is non-compliance (ignoring or misunderstanding) Students regulations, instructions, manuals, guidelines recommendations.
Here also need experience and qualifications of a teacher who should be able to see undesirable deviations in the texts of students textbooks in time to intervene in the process of independent informative activity of students who misunderstood the meaning of the instructions and regulations and operate inefficiently or not at all. The teacher should have an extra set of visual aids, means of involving students in cognitive activity. The basic method of a teacher can be only method of involvement of the student in the joint work on the basis of showing a teacher effective and efficient methods of work regulations and instructions manuals, guidelines, engaging in activities not covered by benefits, but more understandable and acceptable for the student, organization of the work of students on individual assignments in development (addition or modification of treatment) of certain parts of the manuals, guides. An important tool to help the teacher manage the work of students in the classroom and to enhance it, can serve as a presentation. They are his constant influence on the minds of the students contribute to the creation of a stable stereotype of rational cognition, which along with the special knowledge and skills should be included in the purpose of training in properly organized learning process.
According to the German teacher A. Distervega, development and education of any one person can not be given or communicated; Anyone who wants to join them, should achieve this own activities, their own, their own stress; from the outside it can only get excited. One of the most important conditions for achieving this is through the implementation of the content of jobs themselves continuity and perspective links course.
All the activities of the teacher on the direct leadership and management of cognitive processes aimed at ensuring that each trainee individually and consciously sought to perception, understanding and mastering the training material to the level of skills to apply in their future careers.
Given that interest in the teaching appears as an integral property of the individual, it affects the emotional and volitional, in the classroom effectively use complex techniques using more rational methods of activization of educational activity.
The knowledge gained in self-education, are required to be recognized as a civilized state with the help of public and private experts test centers (as in the civilized world).