Lugovoy N.N., Kravchuk Y.B. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY IN UKRAINE
Lugovoy N.N., Kravchuk Y.B.
DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY IN UKRAINE
When demographic security understand this state of security of the state, society and the labor market to the demographic threat is ensured by the development of Ukraine , taking into account the totality of balanced demographic interests of the state , society and the individual in accordance with the constitutional rights of citizens of Ukraine . Today our country has entered into long-term and large-scale demographic crisis , characterized by low birth rates prevailing on the background of her mortality, high death rate of premature , especially among men of working age, negative natural population growth , significant deterioration of health, the degradation of the gene pool. According to Art. 8 of the Law of Ukraine " On National Security of Ukraine " strengthening demographic and labor resource potential, overcoming crisis demographic phenomena attributed to the main directions of the state policy on national security . A real threat to the modern medical and demographic national interests of Ukraine noted in the Concept of National Program "Health - 2020: Ukrainian Dimension" , adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated October 31, 2011 № 1164- p . Analyzing the importance of demographic challenges facing Ukraine in recent decades , we realize that despite some positive changes observed in the past few years, this problem is left. Since 1993, Ukraine's population steadily declining. Thus, at the beginning of 2012 the population of the country 45.6 million people , compared to the previous year Ukrainian was 145 thousand less. Despite the fact that in 2011 (preliminary data of the State Statistics Committee ) there was a slight increase in fertility and decline in mortality is still a natural increase is negative. We emphasize that a terrible wrong depopulation itself as changes in age and sex structure and reduce the quality of the population , especially a significant deterioration of health (physical, mental, social ) and the associated loss of employment and human potential. If you highlight the most pressing demographic problems of modern Ukraine , then they are worsening health and the resulting higher level of premature mortality and the progressive aging of the population. Of course , some of the factors that led to the adverse demographic changes, we inherited from Soviet society, easily achieved felt problems of transition and change in the social order . Such profound social and economic transformation took place in the neighboring countries of Russia , Belarus and Moldova , which greatly influenced the demographic processes. but and after two decades of independent Ukraine high premature mortality determines the gap in life expectancy Ukrainian and EU residents , as in Ukraine , as in the former countries of the former socialist block , premature mortality is more than twice higher than that of countries: EU (compared to the "old" EU member states , such as Sweden, even almost four times )! And, for example , in terms of premature deaths from infectious diseases Ukraine than in the EU almost 10 times (over two-thirds of deaths accounted for men). If we analyze differences in mortality before the age of 65 compared with European countries by gender , it appears that the degree of dominance of this indicator for Ukrainian men is higher than for women. This and healthy life expectancy in Ukraine is much lower than in developed countries. The causes of loss of health , growth and mortality decline in life expectancy in Ukraine strategy for economic development in the period up to 2015 found a low level of life and adverse living conditions and a significant part of the population, the low efficiency of the existing health care system , the prevalence of bad habits and disregard healthy lifestyle. We emphasize that all the above determinants refer to those whose adverse effects can and should be minimized by adequate and rational management interventions. According to experts of the Institute of Demography and Social Studies of MV Ptukha NAS of Ukraine, an aging population and other deformation of its structure in Ukraine causing a number of social and economic risks , the most serious and urgent ones are: • increase the burden on hard-working age contributing and economically active population ; • an aging workforce , the deterioration of important innovation in terms of socio -economic development of the educational and occupational characteristics, such as the ability to assimilate new knowledge, receptivity to innovation propensity for occupational mobility , the ability of the rejection of old knowledge and skills; • shortage of labor , especially skilled ; • worsening problems of loneliness of older persons , especially women and their adequate social support and economic security; • demographic degradation due to massive rural depopulation, migration processes and higher levels of aging. Reducing the number of working-age population leads to a decrease and increase taxpayer losses incurred by the economy , the budget , increases the burden on the Pension Fund. Paradoxically, even the current birth rate is also an additional burden - it is the time when today's kids will " give back " and to work for the state required the costs of their parents , their education and medical care. However, we must realize - though aging population brings with it a lot of problems with the need of public support and the needs of a growing proportion of the elderly population , yet can be seen as a positive sign that people are living longer, and carries the possibility of using the accumulated experience of the older generation in result trudoaktyvnoho extension period. And exacerbated the problems associated with migration related to both the outflow of migrant workers from Ukraine ( mostly in the productive age ), and the influx of migrants mostly from the Third World. According to prominent Ukrainian demographer V.S.Steshyenko "demographic ensure security as a state trial reproductive process that does not pose a real or potential negative impacts on developing countries, should be devoted particular attention to all sections, trends and priorities shaping and strengthening national security, or must be passed a special law on demographic security of Ukraine , since this area of national security directly affects the national interest, the implementation of which is the guarantee of state sovereignty of Ukraine and its sustainable socio- economic development. " Outstanding Kazakh scientist Academician V. Baymuratovym developed the concept of " DA " (simultaneous development democrat, demographics and spirituality) and points out the necessity of sustainable social and economic development of any modern country. It is noted that the patronage of the state in the social sphere does not mean a return to the common " nationalization " but provides guidance on mandatory social criteria of all planned changes in the economy and other areas, taking into account their social cost and environmental impact, basing on the spiritual values of the people . Modern strengthen market orientation in the economy should be combined with the increasing role of the state in the social sphere , because the main goal of the government institutions in improving the quality of life based on social justice. Another issue with the need to improve governance as a national security because of the understanding and appropriate response to the demographic threat , and public administration in general . Stressing the importance of a radical improvement in the quality of life and health to overcome the demographic crisis , the Russian scholar V. Shmakov and stresses the need to protect society from corrupt bureaucratic power. European experience indicates that opportunities to influence the demographic situation through measures of public policy, but it must be remembered that different social conditions , the same measures can have different effects. Thus, there are no universal recipes , each country should act on the basis of national circumstances, to create the conditions for suspension of unfavorable demographic trends , reducing the extent of loss of life, prevent further strain age and sex structure . As aptly put Bogomolets long and productive age of man is achieved "reasonable control of their lives ." The same holds true for the existence of the state ...
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