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Motivation is one of the most important factors skillful use of which may contribute to resolving a complex socio-economic problems, including improving the quality labor potential.
The source of motivation is needed. Human needs - a lack of something motives - is encouraging people to something. We consider it appropriate to note that the demand itself can not be the motive of conduct, because it is able to generate only non-directional activity, it is possible to assume that the motives - is aimed needs. The motive is conscious request. However, the motive can not be equated with the most need for it is its reflection, expression. Based on a needs course there is a whole set of reasons.
In the motivation should be distinguished system and mechanism. The system includes motivation level in which motives are grouped according to their characteristics. In modern science there are different approaches to defining units of work motivation that are significantly different from each other. Some authors distinguish it 3 of motivation as an element of the system: physical, social, spiritual and intellectual. Other authors give a more detailed structure of motivation. They are distinguished group of social, collectivist, process, material motives and self-motivation [1, p.43].
The mechanism of motivation - this entire complex, which includes economic, social, psychological, moral agents, which are motivations to work. This mechanism can be controlled in order to improve its efficiency, or even cause the action to a whole new motifs that may arise due to changes in economic conditions and others. The special features of the motivational mechanisms include specifics its manifestation in every economic system, its mobility and variability in time and space.
As you know, during the Soviet era but the principle of egalitarian wage act is another principle of the totalitarian system - universal obligation to work. Head of the company could not fire an employee who is not performing its functions or become redundant as a result of automation. In this situation, the employment potential is not fully used, hampered by technical progress, indicating that the lack of economic motives.
The state took on a huge burden of responsibility: solving social problems and issues, to some extent offset the low level of basic salary. That the Soviet era an important role in motivating workers played a non-economic, social motives and incentives to work, namely a real opportunity to get free housing, secondary and higher education, a full course of treatment for any disease. Fee for provision of public services was extremely low and was wearing symbolic.
In a market economy, most businesses choose form and pay system, determine its level, which leads to a huge pay gap. For example, an employee of the banking sector receives a salary much higher than the salary of the professor. Director of the Company may receive salaries are 2-3 times higher on the professional salary and 20 times higher employee from the first category. Over 80% of the population is in poverty, and 2.3% of the new capitalists concentrated in the hands of criminal proceeds through millions [2, p.100]. Wages can not meet their needs. Since independence in our society there is a situation where the cost of living in the times the minimum wage. The transition from centralized economy to a market failed to overcome the problems of motivation of work that existed in the Soviet period.
Will radically change the socio-economic system in Ukraine has led to a radical transformation of the conditions of motivational processes. The old mechanisms of forced labor were destroyed: the ideological compulsion to work absent - in a society dominated by "value-chaos". There is an objective need for the formation of new values. Mass consciousness of workers labor was not adapted to market conditions.
The trend of weakening motivation negative impact on the level of consciousness of the workers, and it eventually manifested in their indifference to the outcomes of work, passive, inert, irresponsible attitude to perform job duties. In the labor force behavior began to appear more and more creative type is not an employee, and contemplative and adaptive. It can be noted that labor consciousness today is characterized by alienation of labor in social production. These processes take their outflows from the centralized economy.
Reduction of image work, especially in social production, has meant that much of the population that is unable to consume goods through fair and honest work, limits the level of their own needs. Working passivity in these circumstances combined with consumer passivity that makes the worker was favorable to the promotion.
One of the forms of labor to reduce passivity in many of interest in training. Reduction of Excellence is one of the most negative trends can be identified, the transition to a market economy, although one would have expected the opposite.
Working passivity that is widespread due to deficiencies business entity mechanism, which was formed during a centralized economy and is still supported by social institutions (ideology, culture, morality). Note that market conditions should be characterized by labor activity rather than passive labor that prevails in our society. Time to abandon the employee who is committed to conservative forms of employment.
Many economists consider the problem of the formation mechanism of motivational work, adequate market economic mechanism, but almost all the works of recommendations for its formation are reduced to wage reform.
Of course, the economic motivation - a very important factor in motivation mechanism, and raising the minimum wage will have a significant motivational effect. However, to solve the problem of motivation of society solely by monetary factors is impossible, because the practice shows that motivation through money is short in nature. This can be explained by the fact that wages, which is today for this particular employee acceptable or even great, tomorrow may be to him as a minor and the effort to seem inadequate.
The decision to increase the minimum wage is taken at the national level on the basis of many factors, but more important of these is the availability of funds in the state. But given the fact that the characteristic of the budgetary system of Ukraine is unbalanced public finances and the presence of chronic budget deficits, the minimum wage will not soon be compared with the minimum subsistence level. Also, salary increases do not correspond to the level of development of productive forces in society.
It is advisable to note that this approach does not solve the contradictions motivational mechanism prevailing in today's economy on the path to sustainable development. For example, the proportion of unmet material needs that objective can not be met at this stage of development of the Ukrainian economy could be offset by the needs of self-esteem, personal achievement, competence, respect from others, self-expression, self-realization.
Out of this situation, it is possible that the lack of financial reward from work will be partially offset by a moral reward. Especially since in our society began to form tendencies inherent in Developed Countries: when science and knowledge are directly productive force, radically changing the nature of consumption, resulting in innovation and creativity are important conditions for successful production of great importance demotion financial motivation and a new nature of the results.
The main motive for becoming self-improvement, and its immediate consequence - personality characteristics [3, p.339]. Now the process of understanding a larger share of the population not in their interests to maximize the benefits that are assigned as the internal intellectual growth.
Thus, we can conclude that effective motivation mechanism of employment, adequate economic opportunities in our country, is contained in the partial compensation of economic motivation, which today can not be met in full, non-economic motivations that measures introduced by the formation of creative activity. This motivational mechanism takes into account the development of material resources and productive forces accumulated in our country, and overcomes the main drawbacks of the motivational mechanisms: passive, inert attitude to perform job duties, reduction of image work, labor passivity, decreased interest in training. In the present situation, when new elements are effective motivation mechanism is not yet established and the economic situation does not fully meet basic human needs, the focus should shift motivational mechanism of life supporting functions for creative work.

1. Ковалев В.И. К проблеме мотивов / Ковалев В.И. // Психологический журнал. – 2008,-№1.- с.29-44.
2. Гоголь Г.П. Особливості трудової мотивації в перехідний період до ринкової економіки / Гоголь Г.П. // Регіональна економіка. - 2004.-№2.-с.98-103.
3. Иноземцев В.Л. За пределами экономического общества / Гоголь Г.П. Научное издание. – М.: «АСАDEMIA» - «Наука», 2008. – 504с.
Категория: Экономика | Добавил: YuliyaKravchuk | Теги: Development, Motivation, employment potential
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