Adsorption of heavy metal ions by aluminium-pillared montmorillonite
Heavy metals are highly polluting because of their potential emissions during commercial use, production, refining, processing and disposal of waste. The isolation of heavy metal ions from waste poses a threat to groundwater.
Carbon-based adsorbents, silica, various silicates of layered or tape structures are widespread in water purification. Moreover, they are environmentally friendly.
The ability of clays to absorb heavy metals in ionic form is based on their high adsorption and ion exchange activity. In this connection a deep cleaning of the water before using it for drinking and industrial purposes is required.
The aim of the research undertaken is to activate the physical and chemical methods of montmorillonite with high adsorption capacity with respect to heavy metal ions.
Some samples based on montmorillonite isolated from Dash-Salahlinskiy bentonite were obtained and enriched with sodium ions by the method of ion exchange, latter samples being intercalated by poly-hydroxo complexes of aluminium in the microwave field.
Pillared materials were obtained by calcination at 500°C. The structural properties of the materials were characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction, photometry, infrared spectroscopy, differential - thermal analysis and raster electronic microscopy.
Method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to obtain kinetic curves of iron ions sorption of both in the initial and Na-enriched montmorillonite. Moreover, optimal conditions for the sorption of heavy metals were established.
Pillared materials are widely used to create new highly effective sorbents for sewage treatment, both natural water as well as oils and oil products purification.
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